MLA Formatting Quotations
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2018-01-06 01:54:24
When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced.
To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:
According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?
When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash).
Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).
For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
When citing long sections (more than three lines) of poetry, keep formatting as close to the original as possible.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:
The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We Romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not unfrown itself. (qtd. in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202)
When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. Indent the first line of each quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch.
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues,
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination. . . .
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widerning number of citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . . (3)
Adding or omitting words in quotations
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space. For example:
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of ellipses.
When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem:
These beauteous forms,
Through a long absence, have not been to me
As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;
And passing even into my purer mind,
With tranquil restoration . . . (22-24, 28-30)
For years your teachers have told you that if you borrow someone else’s exact words, you need to put quotations marks around those words. They also told you that you need to use quotations (as well as paraphrases and summaries) to support your research essay.
That’s all well and good. And it doesn’t seem too terribly hard to put quotation marks around a sentence or two and paste the quote into your paper, but it actually takes some skill to effectively use quotations.
But that’s why you’re here, right? To learn how to put a quote in your essay like a pro.
If you’re looking for a few useful tips, here’s what you should and shouldn’t do when quoting.
Don’t Quote Just for the Sake of Quoting
We all know you should use at least a few quotes to support your research essay, but you shouldn’t just throw them in because a research paper needs quotes.
Don’t pick a few random quotes from one of those quote websites (you know which sites I’m talking about).
Those random quotes from famous people—such as, “People who think they know everything are a great annoyance to those of us who do,” by Isaac Asimov—sound cool, but unless you use them in the perfect context, they’re just filler. They aren’t credible research sources.
FYI: Even though beginning your introduction with a quotation can be an excellent strategy, random celebrity quotes aren’t the best choice for the opening lines of your paper.
Don’t pick random sentences from your sources, either. It can be tempting to quickly paste them in your paper and hope they (sort of) make sense.
Sure, there are times when you’ll get lucky and the quotes will pretty much work, but most times, they’ll be awkward quotes that don’t support your arguments.
How to Put a Quote in Your Essay Like a Pro
Now that you know what you absolutely should not do when quoting, you need to know what you should do. Ready to learn how to put a quote in your essay like a pro? Here are four tips to help you move from amateur to pro status.
Tip #1: Choose quotes wisely
Sure, it’s a heck of a lot quicker to pull any random quote and put it in your paper, but that doesn’t mean that you’ve chosen wisely. Quotes should support your arguments, so you need to find information from sources that actually do that.
Let’s look at an example. Say you’re writing an argument essay and are arguing that teens develop eating disorders because of societal and peer pressure.
To support this argument, you use the following quote: “10-15% of all Americans suffer from some type of serious eating disorder” (www.mirasol.net).
There are two reasons this quote doesn’t work.
Reason #1: The source isn’t the best choice for an academic research paper. This quote is taken from an eating disorder recovery center’s website. I’m not saying that the source isn’t accurate or credible. This may be a very well-respected and reputable center.
What I am saying is that this source isn’t the best choice for a research paper. When writing a research paper, you should use scholarly resources and look for quotes and statistics from research studies (rather than random websites).
Read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper to learn more about selecting appropriate resources.
Reason #2: The quote doesn’t actually provide evidence to support the argument. In this example, the argument is that teens develop eating disorders due to societal and peer pressure. Thus, the quote should provide evidence of that.
Using a statistic to illustrate how many people suffer from eating disorders might be appropriate for general background information, but it doesn’t help explain why teens develop eating disorders.
Tip #2: Use signal phrases
One strategy you might consider when adding quotes in your paper is to use signal phrases. Signal phrases let readers know to expect a quote. They introduce the quote and provide context.
Think of them like traffic signals. Traffic lights signal drivers to stop, go, or slow down. They keep traffic moving.
Signal phrases in writing do the same thing. They tell readers to slow down and pay attention to the information that is to follow and keep the writing cohesive.
Here’s an example from a paper about distracted driving to help clarify. This writer uses “according to” as the signal phrase to introduce the quote:
Texting messaging has been around for dozen of years, but there was never a point where it was considered to physically provide harm to someone. However, as of today it has exceeded to a point where it is considered to be more dangerous than drinking and driving. According to the Department of Transportation, “approximately 3,092 people were killed in an additional 416,000 were injured due to distracted drivers in the year of 2010 alone” (Copeland, 2012).
In this example, the signal phrase lets readers know to expect a quote and provides context by stating that the information is taken from the Department of Transportation.
Tip #3: Seamlessly integrate quotes
Another strategy you might consider when adding quotes in your paper is to seamlessly integrate them in the middle of a sentence, much like you would a paraphrase.
In this case, the quote isn’t introduced by a signal phrase but is part of the sentence. Here’s an example from a paper about mandatory physical education in schools:
If a child spends at least five hours at school most of the week, isn’t P.E. the perfect time for students to get time for physical activity? However, when P.E. is given as an optional course or elective and not a required class, most students choose not to do it to avoid physical activity. Very few people know that “only six states—Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, Illinois and Iowa—adhere to standards from the National Association of Sports and Physical Education that schoolchildren participate in 150 minutes a week of physical education. And just three states Delaware, Virginia and Nebraska have 20 minutes of mandatory elementary-school recess a day” (TIME.com).
In this example, the writer uses the phrase “very few people know that” to begin the sentence. The quote simply becomes part of the writer’s sentence.
Tip #4: Cite appropriately
Whenever you use information from a source, you need to cite it appropriately in order to avoid plagiarism.
In other words, all paraphrases, summaries, and quotes from your research need both an in-text citation and a Works Cited (if you’re citing in MLA format) or a References page (if you’re citing in APA format).
Remember, in-text citations have different requirements depending on citation style, so make sure you’re using the correct format.
Here are two quick examples:
MLA citation: In-text citations should contain the author’s last name and page number where quote or information appears. Example: (Smith 450).
APA citation: In-text citations should contain the author’s last name and year of publication, with a comma between the two, and page number if a direct quote. Example: (Smith, 2016, p. 450). Not a direct quote? Use (Smith, 2016).
If you need a little more help with citation styles, check out these resources:
Now that you’ve mastered how to put a quote in your essay, you’re officially a pro. Keep in mind, though, that being a professional takes lots of hard work and practice, so here’s another resource to help keep your skills sharp: how to punctuate quotes correctly.
I’ll leave you with an inspirational quote from one of those quote websites I mentioned earlier:
“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.” —Benjamin Franklin
You’ve already taken the first step in preparing by reading about and (hopefully) practicing how to put a quote in your essay.
Now, take the next step: send your paper to a Kibin editor to make sure your paper makes the grade.
Psst... 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.