The purpose of this assignment is to show common elements of the Harvard style of referencing in Dundalk Institute of Technology. It is not intended to be an example of good quality academic writing, and indeed may not make sense in general, but it should show you how citations and a reference list are formed in the Harvard style of referencing (Dooley 2012). If you include a “direct quotation from a book you have read” (Byrne 2014, p.25) you should include the relevant page number. You don’t always have to write the author and year in brackets. Drury (2013) states that if the author’s name occurs naturally in the text then the year follows it in brackets. If there are two authors you should include both of them in the citation (Rucki and Rice 2012). If there are three or more authors you don’t have to list all of the names in the citation but you should include them all in the reference list (Torrington et al. 2014). The reference list should appear at the end of your assignment and be in alphabetical order based on the first author’s surname (Theaker 2012) rather than the order in which they appear in your assignment (Browne 2011). Don’t forget that websites need to be cited too (Dundalk Institute of Technology 2015). We recommend you look at the full version of DkIT’s Harvard referencing guidelines, and contact the Library if you have any questions. Good luck.
Browne, K. (2011). An introduction to sociology [online]. Cambridge: Polity. Available from: https://books.google.ie/books?isbn=0745650082 [accessed 22 April 2016].
Byrne, D. (2012). How music works. Edinburgh: Canongate.
Dooley, D. (2012). Nursing ethics: Irish cases and concerns. 2nd ed. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Drury, C. (2013). Management accounting for business. 5th ed. Andover: Cengage Learning.
Dundalk Institute of Technology. (2015). Graduate research [online]. Available from: http://www.dkit.ie/research/graduate-research [accessed 24 February 2016].
Rucki, J.D. and Rice, T. (2012). The individual in musical ethnography. Ethnomusicology, 56(2), pp.299-327.
Theaker, A., ed. (2012). The public relations handbook. Abingdon: Routledge.
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.
The Harvard style of citation is coincidentally known as the “author-date” style, because it is the author and the date of publication that are presented in parentheses. This style is similar to APA and eliminates the need for page number in-text references. It is somewhat simpler than APA and MLA and is usually used for smaller papers.
The header contains a short description of the title and a sequential the page number. Using the example title:
“The American Presidency”
…a partial title and page number in Harvard format could look like:
There are several key components to note. First, the title is right justified instead of the normal left or center. There is only a partial title expressing the main idea in the essay. Between the partial title and the number are exactly five spaces. Always use the space bar and use just five spaces. To access the header in MS WORD, go to the top of any page in the document and double click. A blue dotted line will appear with a small box on the lower left-hand corner that reads “Header” and above this will be your cursor. A box will drop down simultaneously. Click the “Page Number” box and follow these directions. Click on the first option- “Top of the Page.” Then click the one that reads “Plain Number 3.” A number corresponding to the page you are on will appear on the right-hand side of the header. The cursor is now on the left side of the number. Type your partial title and then press the space bar exactly five times. Now double click anywhere in the body of the main document and the page number header is set.
Harvard formatting requires a very specific title page. About halfway down the page is the title of the paper, in all capital letters. Following this (about three lines down) is the name of the author. This is not in capital letters. Move four lines down and then put the name of the class, and, on the line after that, the name of the professor. Next line is the name of the school, then the city and state where it is located, and, finally the date. Here is an example of a cover page in Harvard format:
A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY
by Jane Johnson
American History 101
Dr. Margaret Jones
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI
October 23, 2009
Since this section will explain the reference page(s) of the paper, we must discuss plagiarism and in-text citations. References are used to guard against plagiarism. Plagiarism is a crime that can result in a bad grade, expulsion from a class or in the worst scenario dismissal from the college or university. There have also been court cases when the plagiarism has been especially egregious. In-text citations tell the reader who is responsible for the ideas presented, and either when the original piece was written, its page number or both.
Harvard in-text citations are nearly identical to APA, except that magazines and books are cited the same way as other in-text citations. APA format requires page numbers for magazines and books. (After the quoted passage, place the name of the author and the date of publication in paranthesis. For example:
The vice-presidency has been described as “the most useless job in the U.S. government” (Adams 1999).
If you are naming the author in your sentence, put the date directly after the name, like this:
Adams (1999) describes the presidency as being “the most useless job in the U.S. government.”
For every in-text citation there must be a reference listed and vice versa. This reference is a complete acknowledgement of the author(s) and information on how the audience can find the referenced material.
The reference page, similar to the title page, is completely separate from the rest of the paper. After you have finished writing your paper and entered the last period in the document, hit enter to add an extra space, then press the “Insert” button in the tool bar. From the resulting that drop down menu select “Page Break” and a new page will appear where you can record your reference list.
Here is the correct Harvard-style format for this reference type:
Last Name, Initials. (Date of Publication). Title of the Book. Place of Publication:
NOTE: Every reference must use a hanging indent like the above example.
A real example follows:
Roberts, J. V. & Stalans, L. J. (1997). Public Opinion, Crime and Criminal Justice.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
There are many differences between a book reference and a periodical. Following is the reference for a journal:
Last Name, Initials. (Year of Publication). Title of the paper. Title of the Journal, Volume (number), pages.
Note that the title of the journal is capitalized, except for words like “the” and “of,” and that the journal title and volume are italicized. In real form it looks like this:
Sellevold, Martin. “A Look at American Exceptionalism.” Australian Rationalist,
For a magazine in Harvard format the only change is that the entire year, month and day is placed in parenthesis like this:
(1998, September 7)
A web site is cited in a similar format to a book or a periodical up through the title of the piece. Subsequent to that the web site information is added as follows:
Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of the work. Date information Retrieved from Web site url.
Using a real example, it looks like this:Allpsych. (2009). Nervous system. Retrieved October 1, 2009 from