Just getting started? Know your terminology?
A bibliography is a list of resources in an appropriate citation format – MLA, APA, Chicago, etc. An annotated bibliography is different from a standard bibliography in that each citation also contains a concise, paragraph-long summary of the resource’s purpose and content, plus an evaluation of how each source (book, database article, web site, etc.) applies to your chosen topic.
An annotated bibliography is often assigned as a preliminary bibliography to help you plan your paper. A preliminary annotated bibliography is a list of resources that you could possibly use to write your paper. It is not necessarily the same as the list you will turn in with your final paper.
An annotated bibliography may also be the final bibliography for your paper. This means that you must include every source you actually used in writing the paper.
Process for Writing an Annotated Bibliography
- List the completed bibliographical citation.
- Explain the main purpose of the work.
- Briefly describe the content.
- Indicate the possible audience for the work.
- Evaluate the relevance of the information.
- Note any special features.
- Warn readers of any weakness, defect, or bias.*
Annotated Bibliography MLA Citation Examples
College Databases, Scholarly Article:Also notice that the following example shows how to cite two authors, and notice that the citations are double-spaced. Also note that the annotation (summary) starts immediately after the citation. It is not put into a separate paragraph.
Tabor, Monica C., and Robert L. Lancaster. “Ethics and Education in Sixteenth Century England.” New Journal of British History 24:4 (2011): 12-22. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. This article discusses the major moral issues of sixteenth-century college education in England. Topics include the closing of schools and the forfeiture of college properties to the crown during the reign of King Henry VIII. Described are strategies used by schools attempting to avoid such forfeiture, and the role of monks and college professors as martyrs for their faiths. The authors are clear that they favor the separation of church and state. They are less clear on how sixteenth–century colleges in England could have avoided their fate at the hands of Henry VIII.
Print Format: Example for Book in Print:This example shows a book with three authors.
Jones, Tamara, George Smith, and Angela Jones. A Study on Essential Racial Issues in Canada. New York: Scribner, 2010. Print. The authors attempt to support their claims that racial issues in Canada have never been as wide-spread or as inflammatory as race problems in the United States. Based on a review of the literature of hundreds of articles and books about race relations in both countries, this work also gives historical data and statistics that students may find useful, including twenty-three comparative charts. However, the writing suffers from a wordy style which slows reading almost to a standstill. In general, this book attempts to provide a thorough, academic-level discussion of an issue that may not have needed proving in the first place.
Magazine Article from a Print Source:
Williams, Lee. "Fears on DNA Studies Still Abound." Newsweek 14 Mar. 2012: 22-24. Print. Williams, a journalist not a scientist, claims that fears of "Andromeda Strain" types of genetic disease are unfounded. Dr. James D. Watson, co-discoverer of DNA, is quoted saying that no one since the discovery of DNA has suffered such a disease. Also mentioned is biologist Robert Schinsheimer who admits that fears are less justified than originally thought but who also fears that genetic engineering could result in a new route for the transmission of cancer. This short article attempts to provide the general public with a balanced and up-to-date overview of the issue.
The spacing in annotations found on this handout is based on Annotated Bibliography Format, page 130, MLA Handbook (7th ed.).
*Process for Writing an Annotated Bibliography.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. St. Cloud University. 20 Mar. 2012. Web. 2012.
Annotated Bibliography Example
This handout provides information about annotated bibliographies in MLA, APA, and CMS.
Contributors: Geoff Stacks, Erin Karper, Dana Bisignani, Allen Brizee
Last Edited: 2018-02-09 12:16:53
Stem Cell Research: An Annotated Bibliography
Holland, Suzanne. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Boston: MIT P, 2001.
This is the annotation of the above source, which is formatted according to MLA 2016 (8th ed.) guidelines for the bibliographic information listed above. If one were really writing an annotation for this source, one would offer a brief summary of what this book says about stem cell research.
After a brief summary, it would be appropriate to assess this source and offer some criticisms of it. Does it seem like a reliable and current source? Why? Is the research biased or objective? Are the facts well documented? Who is the author? Is she qualified in this subject? Is this source scholarly, popular, some of both?
The length of your annotation will depend on the assignment or on the purpose of your annotated bibliography. After summarizing and assessing, you can now reflect on this source. How does it fit into your research? Is this a helpful resource? Too scholarly? Not scholarly enough? Too general/specific? Since "stem cell research" is a very broad topic, has this source helped you to narrow your topic?
Senior, K. "Extending the Ethical Boundaries of Stem Cell Research." Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 7, 2001, pp. 5-6.
Not all annotations have to be the same length. For example, this source is a very short scholarly article. It may only take a sentence or two to summarize. Even if you are using a book, you should only focus on the sections that relate to your topic.
Not all annotated bibliographies assess and reflect; some merely summarize. That may not be the most helpful for you, but, if this is an assignment, you should always ask your instructor for specific guidelines.
Wallace, Kelly. "Bush Stands Pat on Stem Cell Policy." CNN. 13 Aug. 2001.
Using a variety of sources can help give you a broader picture of what is being said about your topic. You may want to investigate how scholarly sources are treating this topic differently than more popular sources. But again, if your assignment is to only use scholarly sources, then you will probably want to avoid magazines and popular web sites.
The bibliographic information above is proper MLA format (use whatever style is appropriate in your field) and the annotations are in paragraph form. Note also that the entries are alphabetized by the first word in the bibliographic entry. If you are writing an annotated bibliography with many sources, it may be helpful to divide the sources into categories. For example, if putting together an extensive annotated bibliography for stem cell research, it might be best to divide the sources into categories such as ethical concerns, scholarly analyses, and political ramifications.
For more examples, a quick search at a library or even on the Internet should produce several examples of annotated bibliographies in your area.