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How To Promote 1malaysia Concept Essay Examples

1Malaysia (pronounced One Malaysia in English and Satu Malaysia in Malay) is an ongoing programme designed by MalaysianPrime MinisterNajib Tun Razak on 16 September 2010, calling for the cabinet, government agencies, and civil servants to more strongly emphasise ethnic harmony, national unity, and efficient governance.

National campaign[edit]

The 1Malaysia concept is being promoted through a wide range of activities.

Prime Minister Najib has instructed the National Civics Bureau or Biro Tata Negara (BTN) to use its courses and seminars to educate present and future civil servants, politicians, and community leaders about 1Malaysia and promote national unity. Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad stated, “We will ensure that the BTN courses also inculcate the 1Malaysia concept and its eight values, namely high performance culture, accuracy, knowledge, innovation, integrity, strong will, loyalty and wisdom.”[1]

Radio Television Malaysia (RTM) and private television channels have incorporated ideas from 1Malaysia into numerous TV programs. The use of multi-lingual hosts and actors from different ethnicities is one of the methods uses to promote national unity.[2]

Logo and slogan[edit]

An official logo and slogan has been introduced along with the launch of 1Malaysia concept. The logo is the symbol of '1' which incorporates the national Jalur Gemilang flag and the word Malaysia. The government has spent RM38 million to promote Prime Minister Najib Abdul Razak’s 1Malaysia concept in 2010, said Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department T Murugiah.[3]

Slogan[edit]

YearTheme
2009Rakyat Didahulukan, Pencapaian Diutamakan (People First, Performance Now)
2010Menjana Transformasi (Generating Transformation)
2011Transformasi Berjaya, Rakyat Sejahtera (Transformation Successful, People Prosperous)
2012Janji Ditepati (Promises Fulfilled)
2013Rakyat Didahulukan (People Come First)
2015Sehati Sejiwa (One Heart, One Soul)

Public policy[edit]

Improving government efficiency is an important aspect of 1Malaysia. The use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), metrics and targets more typically used in private business, and National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) is thus naturally an important part of the 1Malaysia effort. Najib says, "The government is committed to carrying out a transformation programme as its main agenda based on approaches and philosophy of 1Malaysia – people first, performance now."[4]

Immediately after assuming the office of Prime Minister of Malaysia Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak introduced a series of KPIs to measure and improve the efficiency and quality of government services as well as realising the 1Malaysia concept. Najib said that KPIs were implemented to ensure “the people’s satisfaction...whether they are satisfied with our service, whether we have solved their problems.”[5]

Najib's announcement of the KPI effort was generally well received. Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said the KPI formula was a yardstick against which the people could measure the performance of Najib and the government. He said the KPIs would provide motivation for every minister to perform well.[6]

The KPIs provide a mechanism for the evaluation of ministries and other government agencies including performance reviews carried out every six months. Each ministry has been required to establish specific KPIs including that focus on policy outcomes over the traditional emphasis on inputs typically found in government performance assessments and planning. KPIs include detailed job descriptions and goals for ministers, deputy ministers, and some other senior government officials.[5]

Najib has identified six major policy areas in which KPIs will play an especially important role in improving the effectiveness of the Malaysian government. These are known as National Key Result Areas (NKRAs). The NKRAs include crime prevention, reducing government corruption, increased access to quality education, improvements in the standard of living for low income groups, upgrades to rural infrastructure, and improvements in public transportation.[7]

Najib also introduced a new cabinet position to support the Unity and Performance Minister in implementing the KPI system. Idris Jala, the former CEO of Malaysia Airlines, was appointed Minister Without a Portfolio and CEO of Performance Management and Delivery Unit (Pemandu), to work with Dr. Koh Tsu Koon in training over 500 government officers to implement the KPI system. As CEO of Pemandu Idris will support the work of Koh, who is the minister in charge of National Unity and Performance Management.[8]

Public services[edit]

1Malaysia clinics[edit]

Prime Minister Najib's Budget 2010 includes funding for 50 medical clinics to provide basic medical services for illnesses and injuries such as fever, cough, colds, wounds and cuts, diabetes, and hypertension. Malaysia citizens are charged RM1 for treatment and medication. Non-citizens are charged RM15.[9]

[edit]

To boost internet penetration in the country, the government launch free Wi-Fi services as part of the 1Malaysia campaign which known as (Kampung Tanpa Wayar - KTW) (Village Without Wire) in 2011 for rural areas resident.[10][11][12] The Wi-Fi services have since been renamed as WiFi Komuniti (WK) - Community WiFi.

1Malaysia email[edit]

It was announced that the RM50 million contract was awarded to a company called Tricubes Bhd to run the 1Malaysia e-mail project as part of the government's social networking project in which free email accounts would be given to the public to communicate with the government.

1Malaysia Development Berhad[edit]

A government-owned firm 1Malaysia Development Berhad was formed through the renaming sovereign wealth fund called Terengganu Investment Authority (TIA). Through Najib's efforts the company has focus on strategic development projects in the areas of energy, real estate, tourism and agribusiness.

Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia (1Malaysia People's Grocery Stores)[edit]

Main article: Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia

In 2011, the 1Malaysia franchise was branched off into a grocery store franchise going by the name Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia (KR1M), with the first store being located at the Kelana Jaya Line Light Rail Transit (LRT) station in Kuala Lumpur. The franchise was aimed at allowing the low income group to obtain cheaper groceries and lighten their burden besides bringing Malaysians closer to the significance of 1Malaysia.[13]

Non-governmental organisations[edit]

1Malaysia Foundation[edit]

The 1Malaysia Foundation (Y1M) Foundation was established in 2009 to promote and develop the idea of 1Malaysia. Y1M works to co-ordinate and supplement government and private-sector activities related to 1Malaysia. Chairman of the Y1M Board of Trustees, Dr Chandra Muzaffar said, "Y1M is planning to expand and strengthen the commitment from all Malaysians towards national unity through various activities to increase public awareness and community development."[14]

1Malaysia Youth Fund[edit]

The 1Malaysia Youth Fund was launched to provide financial support for young people to undertake creative projects that nurture national unity. RM20 million was allocated for the fund under Malaysia's budget passed in 2010. The fund was proposed by the Barisan Nasional Youth Lab.[15]

Prime Minister Najib said that 1Malaysia Youth Fund reflected the government's commitment to empowering young people. "The scope and the projects should address three criteria – focus on nurturing unity in Malaysia, have a multiplier effect on the general community, and be led by young people. The objective is to encourage youths to use their imagination to the fullest. We want them to be creative and innovative. Maybe their ability may exceed our expectations and maybe they can do something which has not been thought of by us,” said Najib.[15]

1Malaysia People's Welfare Association[edit]

The 1Malaysia People's Welfare Association (KER1M) was established on 18 November 2013 to aid those who stay at rural areas. The Chairman YH Left Kolonel Honorary Datuk Ranjith play a role to work along with the government under JPNIN, Prime Minister Department, NBOS, JKM, JPW and many other government agencies to roll out the nature of 1 Malaysia dedicated activities to fellow Malaysian. The idea was created to help people who are suffering from living with normal daily lifestyle. Under Left Kolonel Datuk Ranjith, KER1M has introduced their initiative to help needy and unprivileged people to deliver Wheel Chairs under the program call BKR1M (Bantuan Kerusi Roda 1 Malaysia) and this program was supported by YAB Dato' Sri Najib and blessed for nature success out. YAB Dato' Sri Najib also supported the HIV awareness Program, Launching of Buku Nostalgia YAB Dato Sri Najib 40 Years and many other activities which fall under the pipeline of 1 Malaysia. For more information please visit www.1malaysia.org.my

Public response to 1Malaysia[edit]

Interpretation[edit]

A year after the concept's introduction, Mahathir Mohammad reportedly said he "still doesn't understand (masih tidak faham)" the concept.[16] Almost two years later, the public similarly, based on an opinion poll in July 2010, were wary of the concept. In particular, the non-Malays surveyed, according to The Malaysian Insider, "were almost split on the Najib administration's national unity agenda with 46 per cent of the respondents believing that the 1Malaysia concept is only a political agenda to win the non-Malay votes," and "only 39 per cent of the non-Malays believed that the concept introduced by Najib after he took over the government was a sincere effort to unite all races in Malaysia".[17]

Criticism of public services[edit]

The 1Malaysia clinics was criticised for its service especially for their lack of equipments, expired medicines, unqualified assistant medical officers and lack of civil manners by its nurse staff towards patients.[18][19][20][21]

The 1Malaysia Village Without Wire programme (Kampung Tanpa Wayar - KTW) has met with a lot of criticism from the rural areas community with many of them labelling the project as "failed" due to the frequent malfunction and slow Wi-Fi services.[22][23][24]

The 1Malaysia email have been criticised by the public and the opposition Pakatan Rakyat on the waste of money involved and that Tricubes used to be in financial difficulty. After the public outcry Najib had to backtrack stating that this was a private sector initiative and that acceptance of the email accounts was voluntary.[25][26][27] Protests has been organised against the project on Facebook and parodied on a website.[28][29]

The 1Malaysia Development Berhad company has been saddled with controversies such as the purchase of overpriced land from Tadmax Resources, a company linked to the Port Klang Free Zone scandal.[30][31]

Complaints have been received that the groceries sold at KR1M were more expensive compared to those sold in hypermarkets around Malaysia.[32][33] There have been allegations of poor product quality in its product line, namely children's milk formula, fresh milk, condensed milk, sweetened condensed creamer, oyster sauce, fruit jam, canned chicken curry, mango cordial, ghee compounds, peanuts, creamy peanut butter, crunchy peanut butter, crispy peanut butter and tinned sardines in tomato sauce.[34][35][36] KR1M has instructed its suppliers to send their products for periodical laboratory testing.[37]

Bumiputera rights[edit]

Prime Minister Najib's efforts to liberalise government policies and create a more open policy towards all races with 1Malaysia led Malay rights group Perkasa to seek further clarification on the policy, as they feared that his 1Malaysia would undermine Malay or Bumiputera rights in favour of minorities in Malaysia.[38]

Anwar Ibrahim's suspension from parliament[edit]

Main article: Anwar Ibrahim § Jews, Israel, APCO Worldwide, and 1Malaysia

On 22 April 2010, Anwar Ibrahim the leader of Malaysia's opposition, was censured by Malaysia's parliament for remarks he made during a press conference in parliament on 30 March 2010. Anwar had claimed to have documents linking 1Malaysia, One Israel, and the public relations firm APCO Worldwide (APCO), but refused to allow access to the documents when challenged[39] It is against Malaysia's foreign policy to have any dealings with Israel and the appointment of APCO has deeply angered the sensitivities of the Muslims in the country, who wanted Najib to terminate the contract with the company. The Malaysian government and APCO have strongly denied Anwar's allegations. The censure motion passed by the House of Representatives referred Anwar's case to the Rights and Privileges Committee which will recommend a punishment for approval by the full chamber. Such punishment could include being banned from parliament.[40][41][42] Anwar has retaliated by producing the two documents to back up his statements and refute the government's denials.[41][42] It was announced that Anwar was to be suspended from parliament by the Parliamentary Rights and Privileges Committee based solely by a contents of a letter by APCO without him being able to put up a defence for himself.[43][44][45] On 16 December 2010 Anwar and three opposition MPs, Karpal Singh, Azmin Ali and Sivarasa Rasiah were suspended from parliament without any debate being put forward. Anwar has blamed APCO Worldwide for his and his fellow opposition parliamentarian's suspensions.[46][47][48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"PM Wants BTN To Intensify 1Malaysia Concept In Its Modules, Bernama, 15 December 2009". Bernama.com. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  2. ^"1Malaysia Concept In Local Drama Series, Bernama, 14 December 2009". Bernama.com.my. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  3. ^Joseph Sipalan. "Murugiah: RM38mil spent on 1Malaysia". Malaysiakini.com. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  4. ^All the facts on NKRA, 1Malaysia out this week, Lydia Gomez and , NST, 14 December 2009[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ ab"People's Satisfaction a KPI Benchmark - Najib". Press Release, Prime Minister's Office. Pmo.gov.my. 4 May 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  6. ^Najib Sets The Pace For Transformation In Administration, by Sophia Ahmad, Bernama, 11 December 2009[permanent dead link]
  7. ^KPIs to measure PS performance, PSnews[dead link]
  8. ^"Najib makes Idris Jala minister to run KPIs unit, The Malaysian Insider". My-1.themalaysianinsider.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  9. ^"Only 1RM treatment charge for common illnesses, The Star, 8 January 2010". Thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  10. ^"Wi-Fi komuniti bantu rakyat dapat akses internet". Bernama (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  11. ^"MCMC has built over 900 telco towers as of September". Bernama. The Rakyat Post. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  12. ^"Minister: Malaysia's Broadband Penetration Rate Now Stands At 72.2%". Lowyat. Malaysian Digest. 28 October 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  13. ^The-Star-Newspaper-26-June-2011
  14. ^"1Malaysia Foundation To Realise 1Malaysia Concept, Bernama, 14 July 2009". Bernama.com. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  15. ^ ab1Malaysia Youth Fund a boon for youthful ideas, The Star, 22 January 2011
  16. ^[1][permanent dead link] Mingguan Malaysia. 2 August 2009
  17. ^Poll Shows Divided MalaysArchived 15 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. The Malaysian Insider. 9 July 2010
  18. ^Bavani M; Sheila Sri Priya (26 May 2014). "Public shy away from 1Malaysia clinics". The Star. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  19. ^P. Chandra Sagaran (19 February 2014). "Sick girl claims 1Malaysia clinic dispenses expired medicine". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  20. ^"Two-year-old toddler denied treatment as his mother's pants was apparently too short". The Rakyat Post. 6 November 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  21. ^"Parents fume after baby having asthma attack rejected by clinic in Malaysia as it was near closing time". The Straits Times. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016. 
  22. ^Rintos Mail (18 July 2013). "Penrissen folk complain about frequent disruptions to Kampung Tanpa Wayar initiative". The Star. Retrieved 15 April 2016. [permanent dead link]
  23. ^"Projek Kampung Tanpa Wayar gagal" (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  24. ^"Penduduk kecewa masalah internet" (in Malay). Sinar Harian. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  25. ^Letters from readers (26 April 2011). "One e-mail, one bad idea". Freemalaysiatoday.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  26. ^Letters from readers (22 April 2011). "1Malaysia email will fleece us, says DAP". Freemalaysiatoday.com. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  27. ^"Tricubes Says Funding Is Secured For Email Project". Bernama.com. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  28. ^Mustafa, Shazwan (20 April 2011). "On Facebook, 24000 spurn 1 Malaysia email". Themalaysianinsider.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  29. ^Letters from readers (27 April 2011). "Spoof site mocks 1Malaysia e-mail". Freemalaysiatoday.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  30. ^http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2014/02/25/dap-questions-1mdbs-bailout/
  31. ^http://www.thestar.com.my/Business/Business-News/2014/02/21/1MDB-buys-Tadmax-land-for-RM317mil/
  32. ^"MPs: Kedai Rakyat 1Malaysia products not as cheap as advertised | theSundaily". Thesundaily.my. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  33. ^"Opposition MP claims prices at KR1M not that cheap". Thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  34. ^Letters from readers (21 November 2011). "Baffling silence on tainted KR1M products". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  35. ^Letters from readers (11 November 2011). "Poor quality products in 1M'sia shops". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  36. ^Letters from readers (4 December 2011). "All KR1M products to undergo lab tests". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  37. ^"Suppliers ordered to send KR1M products for lab tests". Thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 6 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  38. ^"Perkasa tells Najib to explain his 1Malaysia or face rejection". Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  39. ^"Parliament: Anwar claims Apco was in M'sia before 1Malaysia concept was announced, The Star, 30 March 2010". Thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  40. ^Ahmad, Razak (22 April 2010). "Malaysia parliament votes to censure Anwar, Reuters, 22 Apr 2010". In.reuters.com. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  41. ^ abAnwar produces APCO documents, Malaysian Mirror
  42. ^ abHazlan Zakaria & S Pathmawathy. "Anwar produces documents on APCO-Israel-1M'sia link, Malaysiakini". Malaysiakini.com. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  43. ^"Suspension likely for Anwar, TheStar". Thestar.com.my. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  44. ^Apco row: Anwar may be suspended with no defence, Free Malaysia TodayArchived 6 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^"Malaysia's Anwar says likely to be suspended from parliament, AFP". Google. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  46. ^"Parliament: Anwar, Three Opposition MPs Suspended, Bernama". Bernama.com. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  47. ^Umno and Apco must explain, says Anwar, Free Malaysia TodayArchived 19 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^"Opposition MPs walk out over Apco case, Sun Daily". Thesundaily.com. Retrieved 12 January 2012. [permanent dead link]

External links[edit]

The 1Malaysia School Milk provided to school children across the country as part of the government efforts to enhance students health.

Introduction

“Malaysia, Truly Asia” aptly describes the country as a melting pot of three major Asian cultures. Yet, less than 140 years ago, a homogenous society existed in the Malay Peninsular with a population of 90% Malays (Gullick, 1969). However due to colonial policies and increasing economic prosperity, the society evolved ethnically into present day multi-ethnic Malaysians The 2010 consensus from Department of Statistics Malaysia revealed Malaysians of the 21st century as coming from three major groups; 67.4% Bumiputera (Malays, Sarawak and Sabahan bumiputera), 24.6% Chinese, 7.3% Indians and 0.7% others. In short, this land has changed from a homogenous society to a pluralistic society with Malaysians coming from different cultures, languages and religions.

It can be deduced that integration among Malaysians are crucial factors that contribute to the nation’s success. This unity has been a main concern of the Malaysian government from pre-independence day to the present. In the face of multi-culturalism, Ho (1952) stated that “It is accepted that education is not the only means available in the tasks of achieving national unity and solidarity in the plural community of Malaya, but it remains the most important single factor for integration in the racial, religious and cultural complex of Malaya.” Thus he proposed that education be used to unify the multi-ethnic Malaysian society starting from school level where early stages of inter-racial socialisation process begins.

Through education, the younger generation of Malaysians are nurtured with stronger national consciousness and imbued with stronger national identity. Ideologies and policies like Rukun Negara,and Bangsa Malaysia were formulated to cater to each succeeding generation of Malaysians. With integration still remaining as a top national agenda, the first part of this paper attempts to examine the role of education reports on national unity in Malaysia from pre-independence to the present day, and analyse their impact and success.

The impact is analysed by relying upon a combination of historical investigation from various education reports in the light of national unity. With 1Malaysia being the latest effort of integration, the second part of this paper tries to gauge the awareness of NKRA 4, a visible mechanism of 1Malaysia among 1the educationists through analysis of empirical evidence gathered from the interviews with them. Finally, the paper will analyse if 1Malaysia concept conceived to promote unity will be the right panacea for removing ethnicity barriers among Malaysians.

Inculcating national unity in education: A pre-Independence to present day review of the educational reports The current Malaysian education policy for national unity has its roots in pre-independence era and it has become part of the society’s prevailing colonial inheritance (Azhar Wahid, 2011). During the colonial era, the existence of vernacular schools catering for each race had physically divided the Malayan society. The second divisive factor was the different ethnic languages used as medium of instruction to educate the respective races (Marimuthu, 2008). The third was the geographical separation of the vernacular schools according to the unequal population distribution of different races (Omar, 1991). The only opportunity for integration was among students in English medium schools established in towns (Marimuthu, 2008). Separate curriculum for vernacular schools was the fourth factor splitting the communities.

With focus on ethnics’ respective countries of origin and the nonexistent Malayan context in the curriculum, the vernacular education failed to build a sense of national identity and consciousness (Marimuthu, 2008). To integrate multi-ethnic communities in Malaya through educational system, the 1950 Barnes Report 1950 suggested replacing the vernacular schools with national schools using English or Malay as medium of instruction in primary schools and English for secondary schools and bringing students and teachers of different races together under one education system to build a nation with national characteristics (Noriati Rashid et al., 2012).

As the report was viewed unfavourably by the Chinese, another report, the 1951 Fenn-Wu report, was commissioned; it recommended Chinese education curriculum to include local Malayan elements to help form a sense of national identity among its students. Both Barnes and Fenn-Wu reports were taken into consideration when the 1952 Education Ordinance was passed (Ee, 1995). It supported the National School concept with a common curriculum using Malay and English language as media of instruction. However, lack of funding and insurgency hampered its implementation.

Historically, 1957 was the year an independent Federation of Malaya was formed. To cater to a post-independent Malaya, the Razak Report, the most influential education committee reports, was commissioned. It cited two major considerations: using Malay language as the main medium of instruction and incorporating Malayan context and values into school curriculum (Omar, 1991). The proposal desired to instil national consciousness and mutual understanding among multi-racial communities through mono-language and socio-cultural values. The Razak Report led to the 1957 Education Ordinance. As a follow-up, 1960 Rahman Talib Report recommended retaining a single schooling system for all pupils with the same school curriculum using Malay language as medium of instruction. This report resulted in the Education Act of 1961with its most significant outcomes of phasing out English medium schools and converting Chinese and Tamil National secondary schools to Malay medium secondary schools, standardising school system, and nationalisation of curriculum and examinations (Omar, 1991).

The 1969 racial riot had warranted the need for a more intense scrutiny of the nation’s fragile unity. Poverty, ethnic disparity in economic participation and wealth distribution had emerged as the primary causes of racial tensions and social political instability (Syed Husin Ali, 2008). Hence, in 1971, New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced as a remedy. The policy emphasised on education as a major role in eradicating poverty and in restructuring economic and wealth disparity in Malaysian society leading to social integration and national unity (Hussein Ahmad, 2008). Not surprisingly, the 1979 Mahathir Education Report again emphasized on national unity.

Process of reforming Malaysian education system continues on in strengthening socio-cultural mechanism to build a stronger national identity and consciousness (Hussein Ahmad, 2008). In 1990s, national unity and social cohesion were still the major agenda of Malaysia’s nation building which led to Vision 2020 with the first goal of establishing a united Malaysian nation made up of one Bangsa Malaysia (EPU, 2011) together with Vision Schools where children of all races study in their respective mother-tongue primary schools under one roof and sharing same facilities.

Impact of Educational Reports on National Unity in Schools Past and present educational reports have highlighted the needs for curriculum standardization, use of common medium of instruction, employing teachers of all races, using multi-cultural Malaysian context in curriculum and bringing all students together to share common classroom so as to increase openness, interaction and understanding among them. All these criteria which were absent in pre-independent Malaya have now been implemented in national schools.

In particular, the National Philosophy of Education entails using Bahasa Malaysia as medium of instruction, using the same curriculum, standardising examination and syllabus as well as introducing school co-curriculum. The 1979 Mahathir Report brought about the New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) which was formulated to help develop socio-cultural values based on the Rukun Negara, and national culture (Azhar Wahid, 2011). Integrated Secondary School Curriculum (KBSM) was introduced with emphasis given on mastering Bahasa Malaysia and nurturing national consciousness through inculcating common values, aspirations and loyalties (Nagendralingan, 2008).

Multi-cultural education is promoted in the curriculum to ensure that all students are aware of cultural, gender, racial and ethnic diversity of the nation and to foster mutual respect and positive social interaction with each other (Azhar Wahid, 2011). In the classrooms of national secondary schools, teaching and learning process promote cooperative learning methods such as doing projects, case research, group discussion, pair work and group assignments to help students of different races to not only improve communication skills with each other but also to interact, share ideas and learn teamwork spirit (Neo et al., 2009). When students are aware of the values of multi-cultural education, they learn to respect different cultures, thereby reducing misconceptions and prejudices towards those of other ethnic groups.

Syllabus and curriculum are replete with elements of Malaysian cultural heritage where students learn and understand another culture’s dominant practices, way of life and religious holidays (Azhar Wahid, 2011). As part of co-curriculum activities, sports and games, uniformed bodies, clubs and societies help students to interact with each other; speech day, field trips, sports carnivals, fund raising events are designed to draw out involvement from all students to socialise together (Nagendralingan, 2008). Parent Teacher Associations and alumni associations help to integrate the school communities with the outside communities.

Though the National Education Policy may not have achieved the highest degree of ethnic integration, some of its strategic policies such as using Bahasa Malaysia as the medium of instruction in secondary schools have been successful (Azhar Wahid, 2011). This has created generations of Malaysians communicating and learning using the same language. The concept of equal access to education at every schooling level is another major characteristic of education development in the mid-1970s. Affordable access to education for all can help to narrow the education gap between races and increase upward social mobility. With equitable ethnic participation in the economy and wealth distribution, the causes of racial tensions can be remedied and this promotes social political stability.

National Key Results Area 4 (NKRA)

Pemandu (2011) reported that National Key Results Area (NKRA) is part of 1Malaysia’s concrete efforts to give priority to people’s needs first. Improving student outcome is one of the seven NKRAs “which have been deemed crucial and urgent for achieving 1Malaysia.” NKRA goal for education is improving student outcome by developing students’ minds, talents, and capabilities to safeguard the nation’s future generation.

THE INTERVIEW RESULTS: Views on NKRA 4 from Education Practitioners

The interview questions focused specifically on eliciting their understanding of the NKRA goals which are “access to affordable education” and “quality of education” as well as how their contributions can make the policy a success. Respondent 01 is a school principal who has been an educationist for 24 years; respondent 02, an assistant principal, has been an educationist for 33 years; respondent 03 has been a teacher for 32 years and respondent 04 36 years. Regarding the term “access to affordable education” , respondent 01 replied that it means giving free education from a young age up to secondary education. Respondent 02 said that affordable education includes scholarships and financial help for underprivileged students to keep schooling. Both respondents 03 and 04 mentioned that it means children can easily attain education without been financially burdened.

“Access to Quality of education” was understood by respondent 01 and 03 as getting a holistic education with balanced intellect, spiritual, emotional and physical development. Respondent 02 interpreted it as what makes students employable after finishing their secondary or tertiary education. Producing quality students who have the ability to think critically, apply their knowledge and contribute to society is regarded as quality education by respondent.

All the respondents agreed that Malaysians have access to affordable education in reality. But as to the quality of education, all the respondents conceded that it has declined. Respondent 01 explained that he has experienced the unsatisfactory situation of rural schools where the parents and students do not prioritise education and school principals fail to play their part. According to respondent 02, the decline is partially due to the low standard of admission for applicants applying for teaching training at universities and training colleges and this lowers the quality of education. Respondent 03 believed that the intellectual formation has been over emphasised to the detriment of other JERIS aspects (physical, emotional, spiritual and social). As for respondent 04, she claimed that lack of vocational schools and their limited enrolment make it difficult for under performing students to continue their studies in a meaningful way.

Towards attaining NKRA education goals, respondent 01 pointed out that the principal’s most important contribution is strong leadership with clear and achievable vision and mission for his school. He further enunciated that a principal who sets achievable standards for both the under achievers and bright students can enhance the school’s performance. Respondent 02 and 03 mentioned that active supervision of students and teachers by the principal can significantly improve their performance. Showing interest in students’ performance and connecting with them at ground level are some of the ways according to respondent 04 that the principal contributes to improving student outcomes.

Regarding the role of teachers, respondent 01 stressed that “the input of teachers is proportional to increasing student outcomes in developing students’ minds, talents and capabilities”. Both respondents (respondent 02 & 03) pointed out that students’ access to quality education is enhanced by receiving quality teaching and mentoring from teachers. Therefore, according to them, teachers must be good role models and have the right attitude towards their students. Instead of just settling for mediocrity among students, respondent 04 suggested that teachers should discover students’ weaknesses and motivate them to overcome it.

Evaluating the findings

Generally, it is agreed that Malaysian students have access to affordable education as currently school fees are waived, textbooks are provided on loan, deserving students receive financial aid and rural schools provide free lodging and food. The overall consensus is that quality of education is the holistic development of the whole person. However it may not necessarily correlate with better quality of education as there are other factors involved such as parental involvement and awareness, teachers’ input and principals’ leadership. Two key factors in better education quality are the principal’s leadership and the teachers’ cooperation in increasing students’ performance and outcome.

NKRA education recognises this by creating High Performing Schools whereby schools are categorised into bands according to performance in order to motivate and increase principals’ performance (The Star, 2012). To produce committed, responsible and caring teachers, intervention programmes to train and motivate teachers towards higher achievement are also in place under NKRA 4. To improve the quality and standard of professionalism, the Education Ministry plans to pick only top-scoring university graduates to be 20% of trainee teachers by 2015 and review the passing criteria for trainee teachers at training colleges (Fernandez & Lingan, 2012) to ensure quality teachers. The goals of NKRA in improving student outcome help teachers and principals to tackle the challenges faced in providing quality education. Achieving the goals can indirectly increase unity goal under 1Malaysia as better education opportunities for all can bridge the gap between ethnic groups by balancing their level playing field and providing economic advancement.

Evaluating 1MALAYSIA as the underlying key towards unity in cultural diversity Although efforts were made to integrate the Malaysian society using national education and ideologies, strong feelings of ethnicity in Malaysian social life are rife (Centre for Public Policy Studies, n.d.). In response, the current Prime Minister, Najib Razak introduced 1Malaysia concept in 2009 which aspires to unite the pluralistic Malaysian society by inculcating the spirit and values of solidarity and sense of togetherness, irrespective of race, religion and creed. (Najib Abdul Razak, 2009). The objective is to have the Malays, Chinese, and Indians perceive themselves collectively as a single identity –Malaysians. 1Malaysia founded upon the principle “People First, Performance Now” means that the government’s prime concern is people’s welfare and producing high quality performance that benefits them. In identifying his government with Malaysians regardless of race, social background or religion and understanding their aspirations, he seeks to lead his government to identify their needs and to incorporate their feedback. Consequently, 1Malaysia can strengthen solidarity and cooperation among races for unity in cultural diversity.

Is 1Malaysia the underlying key towards achieving unity in cultural diversity? According to Mujibu Muis et al. (2012), history shows that when national unity and integration focused on assimilating minority cultures into the dominant culture, it invariably caused minority ethnic groups to hold stronger to their languages and cultures. As Hazri Jamil and Santhiram Rahman (2012) suggested, the past assumption that the main method for national integration is the educational policy has been over simplistic. They claimed that racial harmony cannot be fostered through education initiatives alone.

Hence, the concept of integration is not only about a mono-language, but is about mutual respect and understanding of other cultures and beliefs. In this respect, 1Malaysia concept which celebrates multi-culturalism, accepts cultural diversity and sees it as an advantage which can contribute to a prospering, stable and sustainable future (Hasnul Salleh, n.d.). As examples, Malaysian multi-culturalism has been packaged as the main attractions for the tourism industry (Tourism Malaysia, n.d.) and it brings about economical advantages in trade relations with China and India because of the language and cultural link.

Has 1Malaysia concept being embraced by all Malaysians when through its acceptance, Malaysia has the potential to be more developed and stable economically, politically and socially? Without Malaysians’ acceptance, the implementation of the concept may not reach its full capacity. Yet, time will tell if 1Malaysia is to be seen as an underlying key to achieving unity in pluralistic Malaysia. Such a unity attained through the acceptance of the ideology of 1Malaysia renders one’s loyalty more towards the country and breaks down barriers of ethnicity.

Conclusion

Among the government educational policies built on the educational reports, the national language, common curriculum, standardised syllabus and examinations and national schools have always been tools of unity. Such policies have been effective and workable throughout the first 50 years of the nation’s independence. However, the idea of integration has somehow progressed further according to the changing times with 1Malaysia concept which proposes that the nation celebrates its unity amidst cultural diversity and views multi-culturalism as an edge that makes the country unique as in “Malaysia, truly Asia.” This means that the cultural diversity can become its strength rather than its Achilles heel when rather than assimilating minority cultures into dominant cultures as the only way of integration, 1Malaysia concept accepts the reality of multi-culturalism and promotes unity in its diversity. Therefore, the realisation of the concept may be the way forward for Malaysia to reinvent itself as a progressive nation at the dawn of the 21st century.

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